Modelling and performance analysis of dynamic contention window scheme for periodic broadcast in vehicular ad hoc networks This study proposes an analytical model and an effective scheme for the periodic broadcast on the control channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). An improved Markov model for analysing the performance of the periodic broadcast in VANETs is established. Compared with the traditional two-dimensional Markov chain models, the improvement of our proposed model is achieved by the considerations of the unsaturated traffic conditions with the deterministic message generation at each node, modelled by a discrete-time D/M/1 queue and the control mechanism of freezing the backoff-time counter. In adapting to the change of the vehicle densities, the authors propose to use the dynamic contention window (DCW), instead of the fixed contention window (CW), for the broadcast in the IEEE 802.11p medium access control in VANETs. For a certain vehicle density, a best CW size is chosen to achieve a more effective broadcast. Simulation results show that the proposed DCW-based broadcast performs better than the traditional fixed-CW-size broadcast in terms of the packet collision probability. The results also validate our proposed Markov model and its performance improvement than the scheme without the consideration of freezing the backoff-time counter.