A Low-delay Push-Pull Based Application Layer Multicast for P2P Live Video Streaming In this paper, we present our low-delay push-pull based application layer multicast for live videostreaming on P2P networks. The main goal of our work is to optimize content delivery on P2P networks to guarantee the time constraints of live video streaming. We achieve this goal by constructing multiple balanced sub-trees for pushing data and optimizing pulling connections between nodes in different sub-trees to reduce the time gap between arrival times of pushing data and pulling data. As the result, our mechanism can reduce buffering time at each node. Our mechanism also includes a tit-for-tat method to promote node contribution. The effectiveness of our method is proved by simulation results.