Chemical Reaction Optimization for population transition in peer-to-peer live streaming Peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming applications are very popular in recent years and a Markov open queueing network model was developed to study the population dynamics in P2P live streaming. Based on the model, we deduce an optimization problem, called population transition problem, with the objective of maximizing the probability of universal streaming by manipulating population transition probability matrix. We employ a chemical reaction-inspired metaheuristic, Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO), to solve the problem. Simulation results show that CRO outperforms many commonly used strategies for controlling population transition in many practical P2P live streamingsystems. This work also shows that CRO also demonstrates the usability of CRO to solve optimization problems.