Open Set Fingerprint Spoof Detection Across Novel Fabrication Materials

Open Set Fingerprint Spoof Detection Across Novel Fabrication Materials A fingerprint spoof detector is a pattern classifier that is used to distinguish a live finger from a fake (spoof) one in the context of an automated fingerprint recognition system. Most spoof detectors are learning-based and rely on a set of training images. Consequently, the performance of any such spoof detector significantly degrades when encountering spoofs fabricated using novel materials not found in the training set. In real-world applications, the problem of fingerprint spoof detection must be treated as an open set recognition problem where incomplete knowledge of the fabrication materials used to generate spoofs is present at training time, and novel materials may be encountered during system deployment. To mitigate the security risk posed by novel spoofs, this work introduces: (a) the use of the Weibullcalibrated SVM (W-SVM), which is relatively robust for open set recognition, as a novel-material detector and a spoof detector, and (b) a scheme for the automatic adaptation of the WSVM- based spoof detector to new spoof materials that leverages interoperability across classifiers. Experiments conducted on new partitions of the LivDet 2011 database designed for open set evaluation suggest (i) a 97% increase in the error rate of existing spoof detectors when tested using new spoof materials, and (ii) up to 44% improvement in spoof detection performance across spoof materials when the proposed adaptive approach is used.