Real-Time Monitoring of Neural State in Assessing and Improving Software Developers’ Productivity Productivity has always been considered a crucial factor for the success of any business, and the same applies to software development. As a result of software development being almost entirely a cognitive task, problems in cognition highly correlate to problems in productivity. Being able to monitor the neural state of developers in real-time can aid in detecting and handling such cognitive problems before they occur and cause any damage. This also means aiding software developers in taking sufficient breaks, assigning tasks appropriate to their knowledge level, managing deadlines and stress, and so on. In this paper we propose Emendo – a conceptual system for continuous monitoring of developers’ neural state using an off-the-shelf device. Furthermore, we provide a pilot study on the usability and feasibility of the proposed device for continuous monitoring. We also provide a short discussion of the ethical and acceptance issues of monitoring systems. Our goal is to introduce the possibility of real-time neural state monitoring and its potential benefits to the research community, hopefully attracting more researchers in this research field.